Latin Squares, Squared Squares, and Legoed Squares

I introduced my kids to Latin Squares the other day. If you know Sudoku then you have seen examples of Latin squares. The idea is to fill in a grid of squares with colors or numbers or some other symbols, such that each symbol appears exactly once in each row and each column. (see also the Wikipedia Latin square entry). I handed them graph paper and let them loose. This is what my eight-year-old produced:
Note that she produced some Latin squares, but also explored other ideas.

I wasn’t sure initially how long my kids would be content to explore Latin squares, so I also planned to tell them about squared squares. A squared square is just a square made up of smaller squares (this is easy to accomplish). A perfect squared square is much more difficult, consisting of squares each of different sizes. For a long time it was thought that perfect squared squares didn’t exist, but they do! Here is the smallest (in some sense) one:
We got excited about it and decided to make one for our wall:

Next, the ten-year-old wanted to produce some squared squares of his own, but found the perfect ones difficult (they were thought to be completely non-existent for a long time after all). He settled for producing imperfect ones. After making an imperfect squared square on graph paper, he decided to reproduce it with Legos. Here is the result: This led us to considered perfect Legoed squares. That is to say, squares made up of some number of Lego pieces, each piece having a unique size. Here is one of our first examples: It’s a 3×3 made up of a 1×1, a 1×2, and a 2×3. Here’s another, somewhat larger: We found a bunch more (maybe ten or so total). I’m not sure that we got all of them. How many can you find?

Look for up-coming posts on: 1) further progress in building our marble computer, and 2) teaching my five-year-old to count (which required some deep thought about just what counting is).

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3 Responses to Latin Squares, Squared Squares, and Legoed Squares

  1. I really like what you’ve done with your kids.
    Your Squared squares look great as large pictures and the lego is very cool
    Can I include a link back to this page from


    • toomai says:

      Hi Stuart,

      Please go ahead and include a link to my blog post from My kids and I are big fans of and have spent a lot of time exploring your site. I’m glad you like the pictures of our projects.


  2. I have added you to the links page, under Squared Square Arty & Crafty;



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